The man, who dared to dream, the leader of African Americans, who shot the nightmare of racism from a close range, the vicar from Georgia, who removed the dreary white hood of America, was born in a middle class family His father and grandfather were Baptizers preachers, while his middle mane – Luther - was added when Martin was five years old as an homage to Luther of religious Reform.
From the early years of his life, he was affected by the darkness of white prejudice. In some of his later speeches, King talked extensively for the curtains that terrorized his childhood, those curtains that were used in the dining rooms of trains to separate Whites from Blacks. “I was very young when I first experienced the feeling of being behind the curtain. I felt as if a curtain had fallen on my entire life”.
At the age of fifteen, King began his studies at the College Morehouse of Atlanta, in a special program for talented students. In the last year of his studies he abandoned his interest for the medicine and the law and selected, under the intense psychological pressure of his father, the career of clergyman. The next three years, he studied at the Theological Seminar of Croser in Chester of Pennsylvania from where he graduated in 1951 with the diploma of Theology.
His already intrigued thought was greatly affected by the philosophy of “political disobedience” and the “no violence of Mahatma Ghandi as well as the theories of modern Protestant theologians. After Croser, he joined the University of Boston where met his later spouse Coretta Scott. In Boston, he got a solid base for his own theological and moral principles on which he built his doctoral thesis “Comparative study of ideas about God in the thought of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Vima.
He was almost one year vicar of the church of Baptizers in the Avenue Dexter in Montgomery of Alabama, when few followers of the movement for the political rights of the city inaugurated the fight against the racial discriminations in the public buses. The reason was the arrest of Rosa Park, who had denied granting her seat in the bus to a White passenger as the legislation of racial discriminations required. Fervent representatives of the local Black population hurried to establish the “Union for the Progress of Montgomery” putting as leader Martin Luther King.
During his first speech as chairman of the Union he demonstrated his distinguished oratory ability: “We do not have other choice than to protest. For many years, we have exposed incredible patience. Sometimes, we have given to our White brothers the impression that we liked the way we were handled by them. However, we came here in order to break free from that patience that makes us endure anything than freedom and justice”. The American nation had just acquired a new voice. 382 days later the Blacks of Montgomery had acquired their own seat in the bus.
Recognizing the need of a mass Black movement, King founded the organization “Conference of Christian Leadership of the Southern States” inaugurating henceforth officially the lifelong fight against racial discriminations. Having ensured a powerful support in the South, he begun his humanitarian tours in the USA, discussed with Blacks for their rights, followed the policy of active no violence by organizing sedentary demonstrations and courses of protest, met with foreigner leaders, delivered speeches of fire and declared that “the moment has come that a coordinated campaign against the unfairness could yield big and concrete profits”.
In the early 60s, his popularity had reached its climax. In 1964, he received the Nobel Prize of Peace while the Law of Political Rights was voted and permitted the federal government to impose the removal of racial discriminations in public spaces and to persecute the discriminations in the government owned means of common utility and also in the working environment. However, the philosophy of no violence was disapproved by radical Blacks, who called King ironically “de Lawd” (“the Mr Praying”). King tried to extend the base of his organization by constituting a team of poor populations from all races, talking against the Vietnam War, and fighting “for a radical reformation of entire society, a revolution of values”.
On April 4, 1968 the black leader, who had a dream, was murdered in the age of 39 years from a White “brother” while standing at the balcony of a motel in which he had stayed with his close collaborators at Memphis of Tennessee.